Infocenter

Glossary

Air humidity, heating and indoor climate

Wood-based materials are natural and therefore constantly exposed to the moisture content of air indoors. As a result, wood is always warping and changing. Solid wood furniture, for example, should not be exposed to extremely high or excessively low air humidity. Solid wood furniture is not suitable where underfloor heating is used or special protection is required. Otherwise wood will start to warp, distort, shrink and open glued joints or cracks can result. According to medical and scientific research, the best indoor climate for people and plants is an annual average of 45-55% relative air humidity at 18-23° Celsius. Short-term deviations from these recommended values do not cause damage immediately, but longer periods of extremes should definitely be avoided. We recommend that you install a thermometer or hygrometer in the room. If the air is too dry, electrostatic build-up may occur in upholstered furniture, textiles and carpets (see “build-up of static”). If walls are constantly damp, there is a risk of mould and damage to materials.

Assembly/assembly instructions/enclosures

It is essential that you follow these instructions.

Care information

The most important thing is to always pay close attention to the detailed product information, instructions for use, care and cleaning, as well as the manufacturer’s instructions about the product!

Do not place hot, heavy, sharp-edged or damp objects on high-quality furniture surfaces, as these could cause pressure points or marks. Immediately mop up spilt acidic liquids such as fruit juices or alcohol and do not allow them to penetrate. Never rub using a lot of pressure. Tobacco smoke, cooking smells and environmental influences also leave traces. Your furniture will need regular care to keep it looking good in the long term.

Chemical cleaning products

Be careful with chemical cleaning products, e.g. acetone, acetic acid, nitro thinner or sal ammoniac etc. These products not only damage sensitive surfaces, but can also be harmful to health. Please always read the product description and manufacturers’ instructions carefully.

Chemical reactions, e.g. softeners in table-top pads

Chemical reactions or discoloration can affect many furniture surfaces that are in contact with various materials, especially plastics, over a longer time

Colour migration / non-colourfast textiles

Colours can migrate (staining) from dark or intense shades, especially dark red, blue, black etc. onto pale fabric or leather covers. This is also a familiar phenomenon in the clothing industry. It is proven to be the result of a defect in the clothing and is not due to the quality of the furniture cover. We are therefore unable to accept complaints of this nature. Staining of pale, upholstered furniture is particularly common with jeans and, in the case of suede or microfibre, it can also be caused by slight residue from abrasive dust. Careful vacuuming or wiping with a damp cloth to begin with can help. Slight changes in colour are typical of the product.

Couch tables

A wide range of different couch tables is available. New materials are also always being added. You can find information about durability, load-bearing capacity, product-typical characteristics, cleaning and care in the product information from the manufacturer in question.

Deviations in colour/pattern

Because of industrial manufacturing tolerances, it is impossible to avoid slight tolerances in the product between the furniture displayed and the furniture delivered, in sample palettes or for subsequent orders. Shade, grain, structure and pattern are only approximate and cannot match 100% of the time. The structure of wood etc. may also differ greatly from delivery to delivery. That applies to all natural materials, as well as textiles or leather. Complaints and exchanges are therefore basically not possible in the case of deliveries by colour sample. Manufacturers try to find the best possible match. In case of doubt, orders must be placed according to special colour samples. See also differences in colour and structure.

Differences in colour and structure in solid wood and real wood veneer (tolerances)

Different natural and growth-related features make each individually plannable piece of real wood furniture a “one-off”, with a unique appearance. Wood changes under the effects of sunlight and the more natural the wood is, the faster it will change. Completely identical colours and structures, for example between planning samples and delivery or between the horizontal and vertical structure of the wood, can therefore not be guaranteed, which is a characteristic of the product. Woods and veneers from different trunks and areas of the trunk do not match in terms of structure and colour and deviations in colour will appear during use, at the latest. For later additions, we recommend a special design using facade samples, but these can still change in different ways over the course of time, because of the effects of light and sun. Special, model-dependent processing methods, such as vertical and horizontal grain, “dropped” veneer cuts for visual formatting, veneer and solid wood combinations, combinations of wood with cross grain and lengthways grain, edge strips or parquet gluing for a stable shape, create light and dark colour and structural accents, depending on the type of wood, position and how the light hits it. These natural colour effects are typical characteristics of natural materials and an essential, unmistakable feature of authenticity.

Differences in seat firmness

The seating comfort within an upholstered suite may vary. Industrial manufacturing methods can result in varying seating hardnesses in the individual units caused by the design and shape (e. g. with corner units, functional components, conversion units, extension stools, various basic geometric shapes, end units, etc.). Even foam, within its relative density, can have manufacturing tolerances of plus or minus 15 %.

It is important that you try sitting on the furniture before purchase. Even when new, there can be large tolerances in foam for reasons related to manufacturing. Seat or back hardness is only generally consistent in upholstered parts of the same size and shape.

Electrical appliances and electric components

It is particularly important that you pay attention to the manufacturer’s instructions for use for all electrical and electronic appliances and parts. Only use spare appliances recommended by the manufacturer. Failure to do so may result in consequential damage, loss of function and overheating etc. You should contact a competent customer service department in the event of loss of function or problems.

Fabric

Our selection of textile covers is growing steadily. You should not choose by visual appearance alone, but also depending on use, as well as cleaning and care. Your individual needs and house size are the most influential factor. Pay attention to the different fabrics and product information from the manufacturer. Do you have pets? Then please remember that there are no scratch-proof cover fabrics! It is particularly important that you seek advice when buying upholstered furniture.

Feature of use

changes determined by use which cannot be attributed to workmanship or quality (e. g. “favourite seat“ in the case of upholstered furniture).

Feet and floor protection

Please pay attention to the feet connections of the furniture when making your purchase. Industrial series production has standards specific to each model. In order to protect different floors from scratches or damage, it might be necessary to place separate protective surfaces, e.g. felt, plastic, rubber or other gliders, under the manufacturer’s feet. Special agreements may be possible.

Fillings

Signs of chambers, back-stitching and/or filling material is a material and model-related characteristic of quilted mats, chambered cushions and cushions with loose fill.

Firm upholstery

With this type of upholstery, the cover is stretched tightly over the upholstery and joined. This prevents excessive undulation formation during use. In most cases, wave formation that occurs when sitting will stretch out again. However, slight crease formation cannot be ruled out even in this furniture, the longer it is used. This is not a quality defect but a characteristic typical of the product, which is caused by the cover material stretching, not the upholstery sagging. A typical distinctive feature of this kind of upholstery is its linear appearance. The seat comfort is different to that of other kinds of upholstery, because you do not sink very deeply into the upholstery, but sit firmly on top of it. Pulls, e.g. on curves or gathers, are design, model or construction-related.

Formation of undulations and hollows (wrinkle formation)

(See also loose upholstery)

Definition in accordance with RAL GZ 430/4: “an undulation is a distortion that deviates from the original upholstered surface. A wrinkle is an undulation with a kink”. RAL-GZ 430/4 contains the measuring methods and tolerances. Seat hardness and appearance usually change after being used even for a short time due to being sat on. Seats will become softer depending on type and duration of use. The weight of the user also plays a role. This is a normal process that all upholstery goes through. To achieve even firmness for as long as possible, it is important to change your “favourite spot” on upholstered furniture, otherwise undulations or hollows will be formed on one side. This development is supported by the fact that cover materials stretch to a lesser or greater extent due to body weight and heat, forming undulations as a result. These visual changes have virtually no effect on use, function or lifespan and do not constitute a material defect of any kind. Normal duty of care includes smoothing out or plumping covers and cushions. There are usually grounds for complaint if the cover has folded on top of itself in “kinked folds” after a relatively short period of use. In this case, consequential damage of the cover material is usually to be expected and immediate action, e.g. in the form of specialist repair, is appropriate. The “undulations or wrinkles” can be precisely and properly checked by specialists or experts. The “harmonious overall appearance” will be evaluated at the same time. Source: RAL-GZ 430/4. Stiftung Warentest recommends using seats as evenly as possible so that the appearance can adapt to seating habits. If you do not like this loose appearance you should choose “firm” upholstered furniture.

Friction resistance

In regard to upholstery colours, one speaks of rub fastness only when RAL 430/3 Deutsche Gütegemeinschaft Möbel e.V. compliant. Light colours usually achieve higher rub fastness than dark tones. For cleaning, you should use only distilled water and neutral soap, and rub gently with a white, soft, clean cloth, always from seam to seam over a large area, lightly and without much pressure and never only in one place (possibility of colour rub-off and edges being left). Please do not use any microfibre cloths or steam cleaners. It makes sense to test a spot which is not visible. Attention: first always note carefully the manufacturer’s detailed instructions on the product. Damages caused by third party products, e.g. steam cleaners; impregnate and care products not recommended by the manufacturer; discolouration from jeans and other noncolourfast fabrics; velcro on casual clothing; other substances with, e.g. sugar, acidic, conditioning, bleaching additives; alcohol stains; all types of adhesive tapes (e.g. scotch tape) are excluded from the guarantee and warranty.

Functional parts and functions

Please follow advice on load-bearing capacity according to the product instructions. Functional parts require a certain clearance for process-technology and material-related reasons. Dimensional tolerances or slight shifts, e.g. on storage surfaces, table tops, adjustable parts in upholstered furniture etc., are an unavoidable product-typical characteristic. Slight changes in dimension caused by the thickness of the different cover fabrics are necessary. Regular maintenance and care is important, depending on type and surface (manufacturer instructions). Functional furniture is, according to Stiftung Warentest, furniture where compromises always have to be accepted. Careful handling according to the manufacturer’s instructions is just as important as correct use for the intended purpose. Functional parts such as armrests, headrests or footrests are also constructed as such and are not intended to be used as seats or for any other purpose. Because of the functions, creases and folds may be created or may be present (e.g. seat and back, armrests, side parts, head and foot parts).

Furniture and parts from other manufacturers

Special agreements are required concerning furniture parts from other manufacturers and their integration into the furniture parts we supply.

Furniture polish

Unless it is a specialist one, furniture polish will tend to damage your furniture. Traces of silicone are difficult to remove afterwards.

Glass, glass tables

Glass manufactured using the float process corresponds to EU standards and DIN 1249. Signs of irritation such as slight clouds, rings, streaks or drawing defects in the spectral colours visible under polarised light have physical causes and are unavoidable. However, they may not have an adverse effect on safety or load-bearing capacity. Glass tolerances are set down, for example, in the quality and testing provisions RAL-GZ 430. Glass surfaces are easy to scratch and objects with sharp edges must not be placed on them or pulled over them without protection. In particular, hot pans or bottles taken out of the freezer can cause float glass to explode. Use a commercially available glass cleaner for care. Because many different varieties and qualities of glass are used for practical and decorative purposes, pay particular attention to the manufacturer’s information and instructions for cleaning and care.

Leather

Detailed information about our individual leathers can be found on the previous pages or in our black label living book. It is important that you follow the manufacturer’s care instructions for leather! Please also note: the colour, appearance and feel of leather can be altered by the effects of sunlight and heaters etc. Leather may dry out and become porous and brittle if positioned next to radiators for a long time. See general information, room climate and the effects of light. Depending on the type, quality and degree of use, real leather will always need regular cleaning and care. Seek specialist help for stubborn problems.

Light-fastness in accordance with RAL 430/4

Sources of light and, in particular, sunlight change surfaces, especially wooden surfaces, natural materials (e.g. cotton) or leather. This kind of “sunburn” leads to changes in colours because of the chemical composition.

Natural woods can darken or become yellowed; stained woods can fade. Valuable furniture must be protected from extreme effects of light, because “total” light-fastness cannot be achieved.

Please be careful in south-facing rooms with a lot of light and glass. Curtains or blinds should be closed, especially in sunny weather, otherwise changes in colours or differences in lightness could appear on unprotected cover fabrics and surfaces after just a few weeks. However, these changes in colour do not have any effect on use or lifespan.

Load-bearing capacity

The load-bearing capacity of upholstered furniture, functioning parts and storage surfaces in general – whether glass, wood, metal or plastic – is very different and limited. It is therefore essential that you follow the manufacturers’ instructions about maximum load-bearing limits. Correct and adequate support and stability are also required. The individual values and information can be found in the relevant model leaflet. The requirements of RAL-GZ 430 of Deutsche Gütegemeinschaft Möbel e.V. apply as guidelines.

Location

Upholstered furniture, pieces of furniture, tables, functional furniture etc. must be horizontally level and straight when positioned or assembled. Even slight differences in height caused by slanting floors or setting up on an uneven surface can, after weeks or months, lead to subsequent damage to the underframe, e. g. resulting in crunching or squeakingnoises. To protect your floor from scratches etc., special underlays (e.g. pads, coasters) should be used for each respective flooring.

Loose or very loose upholstery

In this type of upholstery, the cover is not tightly joined to the upholstery throughout. The upholstery is softer and the cover looser, so you sit “in the sofa”, not “on the sofa”. The undulating appearance of the covers, as well as imprints from sitting are not quality defects. They are because of the model or are desired for reasons of design, in order to guarantee optimum comfort when sitting. If there are gathers or undulations on some parts of the covers you can generally assume that the upholstery has a loose finish. “Very loose upholstery” is characterised by its extremely soft surface. Even when they are new, the covers have a pronounced undulating appearance that is desirable, because of the model, construction and design. We can assume that leather will stretch with use and that the cover will develop a “used” look. However, this change does not reduce suitability for use at all. To smooth out the surfaces after use, the seat and back cushions should be smoothed towards the outside, plumped or shaken, depending on the model. Some suites in our collection have high-quality, chambered cushions (ticking) in the seat and/or back. The filling of these cushions might be a flocked fabric made out of fibres or foam rods, depending on the model. The filling is arranged in chambers within the cushion so that it does not move. Depending on the type and thickness of the cover fabric, the chambers and the filling may show through to a lesser or greater extent. In order to minimise formation of undulations/creases caused by use, it is advisable to smooth the covers on the seat/back cushion outwards, plump or shake a little, regularly, depending on use.

Lustre caused by use

This effect occurs in all velvety fabrics such as velour, chenille fabrics and possibly microfibres and velour-like surfaces such as fitted carpets or textiles. The deeper the pile (cuddly, soft), the more it will be flattened by body weight, body moisture, heat and seating habits. It will then shimmer with a light/dark or matt/gloss effect depending on how the light falls onto it and the viewing angle. This is not a defect but a typical characteristic of these materials. It does not affect use, function or the lifespan of the cover.

Measurement, positioning and alignment

Measuring and planning the location of furniture are among the most important aspects of furnishing and installation. That is why it is essential that the vendor and fitter know which floor coverings are in the home during planning or before installation. The property developer or householder can provide information in case of doubt. Floors, walls and ceilings are not straight, so small, uneven areas must be expected and taken into consideration when assembling and positioning the furniture. Specific information: the purchaser is responsible for ensuring that the furniture actually fits into the house or flat! Household furniture should not be positioned flush with the wall or too close to radiators or sources of light. Adequate air circulation must be ensured. It is essential that pieces of furniture are aligned so that they are straight! Failure to ensure this may very quickly result in anything from consequential damage (e.g. tipping, jamming, squeaking, tears, scratches or warping) to material fractures. Specialist consultation is essential for new builds. The first thing is to make sure that there is adequate distance from the wall and air circulation (risk of mould formation). It is essential that damp rooms are heated. Walls, whether north or south facing, must be dry and usable without limitation when the building is handed over or when the furniture is assembled. Special features are to be observed in energy-saving houses too. Consequential damage is to be expected if these special features are not observed. See also air humidity and new builds

Metal parts and surfaces

Deviations in structure and colour are unavoidable. Coated metals, anodised or polished aluminium: a gentle washing-up liquid solution can be used to clean these metals. Do not use alcohol or cleaning products under any circumstances. Always rub dry. Always follow the manufacturer’s care instructions. Refer to the manufacturer’s cleaning and care instructions for coated metals, anodised, polished or brushed aluminium, chrome, gold-plated surfaces, stainless steel, high-gloss varnish etc.

Microfibre cloths

Not every product that is available for chrome, stainless steel, metal, mirrors and glass is also suitable for furniture. So, to be on the safe side, do not use microfibre cloths for the surfaces of furniture, upholstered covers, e.g. leather, artificial leather or fabrics of any kind. Soft, clean cloths, e.g. dish cloths or wash leather are more suitable, especially combined with the right cleaning products.

New builds

Newly built properties sometimes have extremely high floor and wall humidity when you move into them. Excessive humidity in the building and relative air humidity of over 65% often cannot be avoided during the first months. Under these conditions, no pieces of furniture should be assembled or placed directly against the wall or with large surfaces areas in contact with the wall. This should only be done after all of the floors and walls have dried out thoroughly. Otherwise, it may result in moisture damage, swelling of materials or formation of mould or mildew spots that are harmful to health. The north-facing side of the building is particularly critical. In cases such as these, you should make sure that air circulation behind the pieces of furniture is adequate. This is particularly important. Air that is too dry is just as harmful to people and materials as air that is too damp. Annual averages of 18 – 23° Celsius and relative humidity of 45 – 55% are correct. (See measurement, positioning and alignment and air humidity).

Everybody knows that new products smell. This smell may linger for a few weeks or months, depending on the material and composition. Frequent ventilation or wiping with a slightly damp cloth works best. Certain products such as leather or solid wood retain a certain smell of their own throughout their life.

Oil-treated and waxed surfaces

Suitable special oil or wax can be used for long-term care. We recommend freshening up before or after the heating period, but once or twice a year at the most. When cleaning glass or mirrors, fat-soluble glass cleaning products must not come into contact with oiled surfaces. Clean the surfaces before oiling / waxing.

Pets

You just have to be careful with pets. Pets are the same as all beings or objects that you have grown to love - they need tolerance and understanding. Pets cannot be supervised 24 hours a day. It is the responsibility of the pet owner, parents or house or flat owner to supervise pets. There is a lot of advice and information in specialist magazines and the media (e.g. Stiftung Warentest furniture purchasing guide, “Ein Herz für Tiere” magazine etc.). One thing is for sure: pets with claws or beaks can do considerable and, in many cases, irreparable damage. Pet hairs, especially cat hairs, are very difficult to remove from textiles. Cats and dogs etc. go outside the home and inevitably bring all kinds of things back in with them. To protect small children in particular, there should be no direct contact between animals and furniture coverings. An effective solution is to protect your vulnerable furniture with suitable materials (washable or cleanable covers or throws etc.) against damage by animals.

Pilling

At the beginning, small balls appear during wear on some covering materials, mainly flat and mixed weaves, similar to those on woollen sweaters.

Pilling usually occurs as a result of contact with other textiles worn by people sitting on the upholstered furniture. Pilling caused by other fabrics is a typical characteristic of the product and not a material defect. Special pilling razors are available that, following the manufacturer’s instructions, can be used to remove pilling without damaging the cover fabric.

It is a case of loose particles of the yarn used, mainly mixed with fuzz from clothing. Pills often appear after only a short period of use. They can be removed with a special depiller, a type of razor. Pilling and removing pills do not affect the upholstery material’s durability.

Planning and free delivery

Prerequisites for defect-free delivery and assembly are accurate determination of requirements with room dimensions, measurement, wall composition and accessibility of the assembly area etc. (incl. door, stair and corridor widths, elevators, storeys etc. This information is provided by the buyer). Please also clarify whether plug sockets and light switches are correctly installed. You should also take into consideration that floors, walls and ceilings are not completely straight and that adjustments and compensation will have to be made during assembly. If there are changes to the premises at short notice, the seller and fitter must be informed of them in good time. The room in question must be empty and accessible. The furniture must be positioned so that it is level horizontally.

Pressure points

Pressure points on pieces of furniture can occur very quickly and in different ways. In carpets this results in the pile shifting (pressure point e.g. caused by a sofa foot), which will be visible to a lesser or greater extent, depending on the angle of viewing or how the light falls. Sheen caused by use can occur on velour fabrics. These are characteristic properties. Pressure points caused by external effects on furniture whilst in use, e.g. bumping into the furniture foot with the vacuum cleaner, are “signs of usage”.

Routine care

You should basically always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the product! Daily use will leave its mark. It is important that spilt liquids or dirt (e.g. fruit juice, alcohol etc.) are mopped up immediately with absorbent kitchen towel or a clean cloth/dish towel) – not rubbed – so that they do not have a chance to penetrate the surface. Do not use microfibre cloths. Do not rub the spot and do not use furniture care products that contain silicon. Never remove damaged spots with solvents (e.g. stain removers, turpentine, benzine or even steam cleaners).

Sensitivity

It is common knowledge that light and plain covers or materials are generally more sensitive than, for example, dark, patterned fabrics or muted colours. This is also the case if fabrics have been impregnated with stain guard and for “natural products” in general. The more natural a product is, the more sensitively it will react to external influences.

Slip covers/removable covers

There are some special things to look out for when it comes to removable upholstery covers. You must pay attention to the fabric composition and instructions on cleaning. Can they be dry cleaned? Are they washable and, if yes, how? Usually only at a maximum of 30°C. It is easy to shrink a cover and then not be able to get it back on or only be able to get it back on with difficulty

Solid wood

Solid wood is a phenomenon - “it is always warping”. Solid wood is one of the most diverse, luxurious and most beautiful natural products used for furniture and indoor furnishings. It is used to make proverbial natural and unique furniture. With solid wood, nature shows people that she is difficult to tame. Solid wood does not adapt to people and their home but the other way around. People have to adapt their living environment to nature and her characteristics. Owners of antiques know this well. One thing that is essential for wood is also particularly important for people: indoor climate, i.e. an annual average of 45-55% relative air humidity. Even then, “warping, distortion, swelling and fading or small cracks” cannot be avoided. (See also air humidity/indoor climate)

Woods chosen for furniture construction across the world now mainly come from managed forestry. Product information about the many special woods, e.g. knotty maple, knotty oak, beech heart wood or willow, is a valuable way of finding out more about the individual characteristics of the woods. Please note that tolerances in solid wood, e.g. deviations in dimensions, colour or structure, may even be present when the product is new, i.e. when it is delivered (see also sagging or relevant sets of regulations).

Staining

Be careful with non-colourfast textiles. Dyed cotton fabrics such as blue denim and t-shirts in intense shades of colour (red, black or dark blue, etc.), in particular, can leave marks because of body heat and moisture etc. Light-coloured covers on upholstered furniture, as well as natural, wooden surfaces are often susceptible. The cause is normally the textiles and not the upholstered furniture. The same also goes for full-grain leather and suede. Please read the product information from the textile or leather manufacturer.

Static

Static is mainly related to excessively dry air in rooms, especially during the winter months when heating is used for long periods, combined with synthetic materials, e.g. carpets, textiles, textile upholstery covers and rarely, specially coated surfaces. Dry air can cause the cover to “dry out”. Static can quickly be alleviated by increasing air humidity in the room by thoroughly dampening the carpet and wiping the upholstery covers with a damp (but not dripping wet!) cloth.

Steam cleaners

Steam cleaners are not suitable for furniture, even if certain advertisements promise otherwise. The steam pressure can relatively quickly destroy joins, seals and surfaces etc.

Tolerances

For manufacturing reasons, tolerances for furniture cannot be avoided in industrial mass production. Most tolerances are established in the quality and testing provisions RAL-GZ 430 of the Deutsche Gütegemeinschaft Möbel e.V. with the “Golden M” quality mark. If the deviations (tolerances) exist to a negligible extent within the national and international standard in colour, dimensions and texture, then there is no material defect. It is a case of being a “product-typical feature“. These are production and manufacturing technology-related deviations that are to be accepted – almost always minor visual deviations that do not affect use, function, safety and lifespan.

Tools

Only use metal fittings, tools and materials prescribed by the manufacturer. Failure to adhere to this normally results in invalidation of the guarantee. Ask a specialist in case of doubt.

Underfloor heating

Take particular care when using underfloor heating with solid wood furniture. Underfloor heating may cause the wood to dry out more quickly and lead to shrinkage, warping or cracks in the wood. Antiques dealers therefore recommend additional humidification for their valuable pieces.

Upholstered furniture in general

Upholstered furniture is soft and malleable. You should not just buy for appearance but according to your individual needs. There is a difference between “firm”, i.e. largely smooth upholstery and “loose” or “very loose” upholstery. In the latter, a soft, crumpled finish is desirable depending on the construction and design. There will be undulations or wrinkles in the cover fabrics even when new. These intensify with use and are a typical characteristic of the product. People often underestimate that upholstered furniture is used for around 3-5 hours a day, usually on a favourite spot. Visual changes cannot be prevented and are part of normal wear and tear. They have very little effect on use or lifespan. Upholstered furniture must be horizontally level and straight. Uneven parts of the floor or unevenness caused by carpets must be levelled out or an underlay must be used. (Please refer to product information from the manufacturer).

Use in accordance with the regulations

Furniture that has been manufactured for private living space may only be used for general domestic purposes. It is not suitable for commercial or outdoor use. That applies for commercial holiday apartments, offices and hotels etc. Applicable standards, safety regulations and sets of regulations must be observed for commercial or contract orders and public facilities.

Wood-based materials

The quality of a product basically does not depend on whether it is made from wood-based materials or solid wood, but more on the quality of the material used and how it is processed. Tried and tested material boards (chipboard), medium density fibreboard (MDF), plywood, triple-layer or lumbar-cored plywood are of very high quality. Whether finished with veneer, film or varnished surfaces, they are extremely stable, less susceptible to fluctuations in temperature and have a variety of possible uses. Their components have been tested and certified to make sure that they are harmless to health according to EC guidelines and the stricter RAL requirements of the Deutsche Gütegemeinschaft Möbel. Wood-based materials go a long way to protecting our natural resources.